Ginger is currently one of the most popular herbs commonly added to diverse foods, beverages, and dietary supplements. We evaluated the ability of a well-characterized ginger extract, and several of its phytoconstituents, to activate select nuclear receptors as well as modulate the activity of various cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters because phytochemical-mediated modulation of these proteins underlies many clinically relevant herb–drug interactions (HDI). Our results revealed ginger extract activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in AhR-reporter cells and pregnane X receptor (PXR) in intestinal and hepatic cells. Among the phytochemicals investigated, (S)-6-gingerol, dehydro-6-gingerdione, and (6S,8S)-6-gingerdiol activated AhR, while 6-shogaol, 6-paradol, and dehydro-6-gingerdione activated PXR. Enzyme assays showed that ginger extract and its phytochemicals dramatically inhibited the catalytic activity of CYP3A4, 2C9, 1A2, and 2B6, and efflux transport capabilities of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Dissolution studies with ginger extract conducted in biorelevant simulated intestinal fluid yielded (S)-6-gingerol and 6-shogaol concentrations that could conceivably exceed cytochrome P450 (CYP) IC50 values when consumed in recommended doses. In summary, overconsumption of ginger may disturb the normal homeostasis of CYPs and ABC transporters, which in turn, may elevate the risk for HDIs when consumed concomitantly with conventional medications.
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03 May 2023 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Author information: Husain I (1), Dale OR (1), Idrisi M (1), Gurley BJ (1), Avula B (1), Katragunta K (1), Ali Z (1), Chittiboyina A (1), Noonan G (2), Khan IA (1,3), Khan SI. (1,3)
1. National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, United States.
2. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, United States Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States.
3. Department of Bio-Molecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, United States.