The application of essential oils has historically been limited to topical (massage therapy) and inhalational (aromatherapy) routes of administration. More recently, however, evaluation of the therapeutic effects of essential oils has expanded to include the oral route of administration, which increases the herb-drug interaction potential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the herb-drug interaction potential of lavender essential oil and two of its primary phytoactive constituents, namely linalool and linalyl acetate. The metabolic stability of linalool and linalyl acetate was determined in human liver microsomes (HLM) and S9 fractions by quantitative analysis using UPLC-MS/MS system. Linalool was metabolically unstable in HLM and S9 fractions with an intrinsic clearance of 31.28 mL·min-1·kg-1, and 7.64 mL·min-1·kg-1, respectively. Interestingly, it was observed that linalyl acetate converted to linalool both in HLM and S9 fractions. Lavender oil showed weak inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 enzymes (IC50 12.0 and 21.5 µg/mL). Linalyl acetate inhibited CYP3A4 (IC50 4.75 µg/mL) while linalool did not show any inhibitory effect on any of the enzymes. The lavender oil and its constituents did not activate PXR to a considerable extent, and no activation of AhR was observed, suggesting a lack of potential to modify the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional medications if used concurrently
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Received: 25 October 2022 / Revised: 2 January 2023 / Accepted: 9 January 2023 / Published: 12 January 2023; Molecules
Author information: Goutam Mondal (1), Olivia R Dale (1), Yan-Hong Wang (1), Shabana I Khan (1,2), Ikhlas A Khan (1,2), Charles R Yates (1)
(1) National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.
(2) Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.