Growth Factor Receptors
Growth factor receptors (receptors that bind to a growth factor) are the initial step in a cell’s signaling cascade for cell differentiation and proliferation. The growth / survival signal is initially carried by these receptor ligands which then bind to cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Growth factor receptors utilize the JAK/STAT, PI3 kinase, and MAP kinase pathways, as well as transcription factors like signal transducers or SMAD proteins. While growth factors act on different cell types, their signal pathways often overlap, and this shared mechanism has generated a significant amount of interest in cancer research.
Because of their effect on cell growth, research surrounding growth factor receptors typically focuses on their ability to pinpoint cancer treatments. Once growth factors bind to their receptor, a signal transduction pathway occurs within the cell to ensure the cell is functioning properly. In cancer cells, however, this pathway may never turn on or off. In certain cancers, these receptors are often overexpressed, corresponding to uncontrolled proliferation or differentiation. In addition, the expression of mutant forms of growth factor proteins may also lead to cancer. Tyrosine receptors are often a target for cancer therapies for this same reason.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR): In many cancer types, mutations affecting EGFR expression or activity could result in cancer progression. Deficient signaling of the EGFR is associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s, while over-expression is associated with the development of a wide variety of tumors. Interruption of EGFR signaling can prevent the growth of the EGFR-expressing tumors and improve the patient’s condition. [Learn More]
Growth Hormone Receptor: Best known for regulating growth, the growth hormone receptor has other critical biological functions including metabolism regulation and controlling physiological processes related to the cardiovascular, reproductive, gastrointestinal, and renal systems. Technically a member of the cytokine family of receptors, growth hormone signaling is also an important regulator of aging and plays a key role in cancer development, as it is involved in multiple biological and physiological actions contributing to cell differentiation and proliferation. [Learn More]
Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor: Mutations in the critical TGFbR systems are responsible or a wide spectrum of developmental disorders and adult disease states, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, diabetes, fibrosis, obesity, and wound healing. TGFbR signaling not only acts as a tumor suppressor but has been shown both in vitro and in vivo to act as a powerful stimulator of tumor progression. [Learn More]
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2: VEGF is important in both vasculogenesis (the formation of the circulatory system) and angiogenesis (the growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature). VEGFR is primarily localized to, and significantly unregulated on, tumor vasculature - blood and/or lymphatic - supporting the majority of solid-state cancers. Without adequate blood supply solid cancers cannot grow beyond a certain size; cancers that express VEGFR however, are able to grow and metastasize. Overexpression of VEGFR can also cause vascular disease in the retina of the eye and other parts of the body. VEGFR signaling inhibitors have shown clinical efficacy in a range of solid tumor types, including colorectal, lung, and breast cancer. [Learn More]
Kits are offered in different assay formats to accommodate researchers' needs: 3x 32, 1x 96, and 1x 384 assay formats for screening small numbers of test compounds, as well as custom bulk reagents for HTS applications. Assay systems are all inclusive, providing reporter cells, optimized growth media, media for diluting test compounds, a reference agonist or inhibitor, luciferase detection reagent, a cell culture-ready assay plate, and a detailed protocol. All kits are shipped on dry ice.
Reporter Cells are transiently transfected and prepared as frozen stocks using INDIGO's proprietary CryoMite™ process. This cryo-preservation method allows for the immediate dispensing of healthy, division-competent reporter cells into assay plates. There is no need for cumbersome intermediate treatment steps such as spin-and-rinse of cells, viability determinations, or cell titer adjustments prior to assay setup.
INDIGO's assay kits provide the convenience of an all-inclusive cell-based assay system. In addition to Reporter Cells, provided are two optimized media for use in recovering the cryopreserved cells and for diluting test samples, the reference agonist or inhibitor of the reporter system, Luciferase Detection Reagents, and a cell culture-ready assay plate.
Bulk assay reagents can be custom manufactured to accommodate any scale of HTS. Please inquire.
Service Assays: Human
Service assays include an reference compound and 'vehicle' control for every experiment. A formal study report and all data files are provided to the client upon completion of the study. To receive a quote for your proposed study, complete & submit the online "Request a Quote" form or contact an INDIGO Customer Service Representative to discuss your desired study parameters.