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Human AR Reporter Assay Kit

1 x-96 well format assays
3 x-32 assays in-96 well format
1 x-384 well format assays
1 x-96 well format assays
3 x-32 assays in-96 well format
1 x-384 well format assays

Product Description and Product Data

This is an all-inclusive cell-based luciferase reporter assay kit targeting the Human Androgen Receptor (AR). INDIGO’s AR reporter assay utilizes proprietary mammalian cells that have been engineered to provide constitutive expression of the AR. In addition to AR Reporter Cells, this kit provides two optimized media for use during cell culture and in diluting the user’s test samples, a reference agonist, Luciferase Detection Reagent, and a cell culture-ready assay plate. The principal application of this assay is in the screening of test samples to quantify any functional activity, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against human AR. This kit provides researchers with clear, reproducible results, exceptional cell viability post-thaw, and consistent results lot to lot. Kits must be stored at -80C. Do not store in liquid nitrogen. Note: reporter cells cannot be refrozen or maintained in extended culture.


  • Ready to Use Upon Receipt

  • Includes All Needed Components
  • Contains Transfected Reporter Cells
  • Eliminates Cell Licensing Fees
  • Clear, Reproducible Results
  • Consistent Results Lot to Lot

Product Specifications

Target TypeNuclear Hormone Receptor
Receptor FormNative
Assay ModeAgonist, Antagonist
Kit Components
  • AR Reporter Cells
  • Cell Recovery Medium (CRM)
  • Compound Screening Medium (CSM)
  • 5a-Dihydro-11-keto Testosterone; (ref. agonist; in DMSO)
  • Detection Substrate
  • Detection Buffer
  • White, sterile, cell-culture ready assay plate
Shelf Life6 months
Orthologs AvailableYes
Shipping RequirementsDry Ice
Storage temperature-80C


Agonist dose-response analyses. Human AR agonist dose-response assays were performed using the reference agonists 5αDihydro 11-keto Testosterone (5αDH-11kT; provided), Dihydro Testosterone (DHT; Steraloids Inc.), 6α-Fl Testosterone (6αFlT; Enzo Life Sci), Cl-4As-1, 11-keto Testosterone (11-kT; Sigma-Aldrich) and Medroxy-Progesterone 17-Acetate (MPA; Steraloids, Inc.). Luminescence was quantified and values of average relative light units (RLU), corresponding standard deviation (SD), Fold-Activation and Z’ were determined. For each reference agonist, RLU values were normalized as Percent Activation of AR relative to the EC100 concentration of 5αDihydro 11-keto Testosterone. GraphPad Prism software was used to perform 4-parameter, least squares method of non-linear regression to plot % Relative Activation vs. Log10 transformed concentration (pM), and to determine EC50 values.
Analyses of AR Reporter Cells treated with 100 pM 5αDihydro-11-keto Testosterone (~EC70) and challenged with the AR reference antagonists Mifepristone (Enzo Biochem) Nilutamide or Hydroxy-Flutamide (Sigma). No compound-induced cytotoxicity was detected using INDIGO’s Live Cell Multiplex Assay (data not shown).

Target Background

The androgen receptor is activated by binding of either of the androgenic hormones testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor is most closely related to the progesterone receptor, and progestins in higher dosages can block the androgen receptor. The main function of the androgen receptor is as a DNA binding transcription factor which regulates gene expression; however, the androgen receptor has other functions as well.

Androgen regulated genes are critical for the development and maintenance of the male sexual phenotype. In some cell types testosterone interacts directly with androgen receptors while in others testosterone is converted by 5-alpha-reductase to dihydrotestosterone, an even more potent agonist for androgen receptor activation. Testosterone appears to be the primary androgen receptor activating hormone in the Wolffian duct while dihydrotestosterone is the main androgenic hormone in the urogenital sinus, urogenital tubercle, and hair follicles. Hence testosterone is primarily responsible for the development of male primary sexual characteristics while dihydrotestosterone is responsible for secondary male characteristics.

INDIGO’s Androgen Receptor assay system utilizes proprietary mammalian cells engineered to provide constitutive, high-level expression of full length, unmodified Human Androgen Receptor (NR3C4), a ligand-dependent transcription factor commonly referred to as AR.

INDIGO’s Reporter Cells include the luciferase reporter gene functionally linked to a bona fide AR-responsive promoter. Therefore, quantifying changes in luciferase expression in the treated reporter cells provides a sensitive surrogate measure of the changes in AR activity. Luciferase gene expression occurs after ligand-bound AR undergoes nuclear translocation, DNA binding, recruitment, and assembly of the co-activators and accessory factors required to form a functional transcription complex, culminating in expression of the target gene. Unlike some other cell-based assay strategies, the readout from INDIGO’s reporter cells demands the same orchestration of all intracellular molecular interactions and events that can be expected to occur in vivo.

The principle application of this assay product is in the screening of test samples to quantify functional activities, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against the human androgen receptor.


Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant. The primary TDCPP metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), is detectable in the urine of over 90 % of Americans. Epidemiological studies show sex-specific associations between urinary BDCPP levels and metabolic syndrome, which is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. We used a mouse model to determine whether TDCPP exposure disrupts glucose homeostasis. Six-week old male and female C57BL/6J mice were given ad libitum access to diets containing vehicle (0.1 % DMSO) and TDCPP resulting in the following treatment groups: 0 mg/kg/day, 0.02 mg/kg/day, 1 mg/kg/day, or 100 mg/kg/day. After being on the experimental diet for five weeks without interruption, body composition was analyzed, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were quantified. TDCPP at 100 mg/kg/day caused male sex-specific adiposity, fasting hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. TDCPP-induced modulation of nuclear receptor activation was investigated using an in vitro screen to identify potential mechanisms of metabolic disruption. TDCPP activated farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), and inhibited the androgen receptor (AR). PXR target genes, but not FXR target genes, were upregulated in livers from mice exposed to 100 mg TDCPP/kg/day. Interestingly, PXR target genes were differentially expressed in livers from both males and females. It remains to be determined whether TDCPP-induced metabolic disruption occurs via modulation of nuclear receptor activity. Taken together, these studies build upon the association of TDCPP exposure and metabolic syndrome in humans by identifying sex-specific effects of TDCPP on glucose homeostasis in mice.
In an ongoing effort to study the environmental fate of endocrine-active steroid hormones, we report the formation of phenolic rearrangement products (3 and 4) with a novel 6,5,8,5-ring system following aqueous photolysis of dienogest (1) and methyldienolone (2). The structures were established by analysis of 2D NMR and HRMS data, and that of 3 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. These photoproducts exhibit progestogenic and androgenic activity, albeit with less potency than their parent compounds.

Also available as a service

Androgen Receptor (AR, NR3C4)

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