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Human PPARg Reporter Assay Kit

1 x-96 well format assays$910 USD
3 x-32 assays in-96 well format$980 USD
1 x-384 well format assays$2300 USD
1 x-96 well format assays
3 x-32 assays in-96 well format
1 x-384 well format assays

Product Description and Product Data

This is an all-inclusive cell-based luciferase reporter assay kit targeting the Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma. INDIGO’s Human PPAR gamma reporter assay utilizes proprietary mammalian cells that have been engineered to provide constitutive expression of the Human PPAR gamma. In addition to PPAR gamma Reporter Cells, this kit provides two optimized media for use during cell culture and in diluting the user’s test samples, a reference agonist, Luciferase Detection Reagent, and a cell culture-ready assay plate. The principal application of this assay is in the screening of test samples to quantify any functional activity, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against human PPAR gamma.This kit provides researchers with clear, reproducible results, exceptional cell viability post-thaw, and consistent results lot to lot. Kits must be stored at -80C. Do not store in liquid nitrogen. Note: reporter cells cannot be refrozen or maintained in extended culture.


  • Clear, Reproducible Results

  • All-Inclusive Assay Systems
  • Exceptional Cell Viability Post-Thaw
  • Consistent Results Lot to Lot

Product Specifications

Target TypeNuclear Hormone Receptor
Receptor FormHybrid
Assay ModeAgonist, Antagonist
Kit Components
  • PPARg Reporter Cells
  • Cell Recovery Medium (CRM)
  • Compound Screening Medium (CSM)
  • Rosiglitazone, (ref. agonist; in DMSO)
  • Detection Substrate
  • Detection Buffer
  • White, sterile, cell-culture ready assay plate
Shelf Life6 months
Orthologs AvailableYes
Shipping RequirementsDry Ice
Storage temperature-80C


Agonist dose-response analyses of the Human PPARγ Assay. Validation of the PPARγ Assay was performed using manual dispensing and following the protocol described in the assay Technical Manual, using the reference agonists Rosiglitazone (provided), Troglitazone (Tocris) and Ciglitazone (Tocris). In addition, to assess the level of background signal contributed by non-specific factor(s) that may cause activation of the luciferase reporter gene, “mock” reporter cells were specially prepared to contain only the luciferase reporter vector (mock reporter cells are not provided with assay kits). PPARγ Reporter Cells and Mock reporter cells were identically treated with Rosiglitazone, as described in Appendix 1 of the technical manual. Luminescence was quantified using a GloMax-Multi+ plate-reading luminometer (Promega Corp.). Values of average Relative Light Units (RLU; average of n ≥ 6), respective standard deviation (SD), Signal-to-Background (S/B) and Coefficient of Variation (CV) were determined. Z’ values were calculated as described by Zhang, et al. (1999). Non-linear regression analyses were performed and EC50 values determined using GraphPad Prism software. RESULTS: PPARγ reporter cells treated with 2,500 nM Rosiglitazone yielded an average RLU value with CV=7%, S/B = 162 and a corresponding Z’= 0.78. Similarly treated mock reporter cells demonstrate no significant background luminescence (≤ 0.05% that of ECMax). Thus, luminescence results strictly through ligand-activation of the PPARγ expressed in these reporter cells.
Antagonist dose-response analyses of Human PPARγ performed in combination with the INDIGO Live Cell Multiplex Assay. Antagonist assays were performed using T0070907 (Tocris), and GW9662 (Tocris). To confirm that the observed drop in RLU values resulted from receptor inhibition, as opposed to induced cell death, the relative numbers of live cells in each assay well were determined using INDIGO's Live Cell Multiplex (LCM) Assay (#LCM-01). Final assay concentrations of the respective antagonists ranged between 10 µM and 10 pM, including a 'no antagonist' control (n ≥ 6 per treatment; highest [DMSO] ≤ 0.15% f.c.). Each treatment also contained 220 nM (approximating EC50) Rosiglitazone as challenge agonist. Assay plates were incubated for 22 hrs, then processed according to the LCM Assay protocol to quantify relative numbers of live cells per treatment condition. Plates were then further processed to quantify PPARγ activity for each treatment condition. Averaged RFU values from each antagonist treatment group were normalized to the average RFU value of "no antagonist treatment" assay wells, which corresponds to 100% Live Cells in the LCM assay. Results: T0070907 and GW9662 both caused dose-dependent reduction in RLU values. The LCM Assay reveals no significant variance in the numbers of live cells per assay well, up to the maximum treatment concentration of 10 µM. Hence, the observed reduction in RLU values can be attributed to dose-dependent inhibition of PPARγ activity, and not to cell death. NOTE: RLU values will vary slightly between different production lots of reporter cells, and can vary significantly between different makes and models of luminometers.

Target Background

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARγ gene. PPARs form heterodimers with Retinoid X Receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. PPARγ regulates adipocyte differentiation, fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. The PPARγ knockout mice fail to generate adipose tissue when fed a high fat diet. Many insulin sensitizing drugs used in the treatment of diabetes target PPARγ as a means to lower serum glucose without increasing pancreatic insulin secretion. Additionally, PPARγ has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described.

INDIGO’s PPARγ Reporter Assay System utilize proprietary mammalian cells engineered to express human PPARG, commonly referred to as PPARγ.

The principle application of this assay product is in the screening of test samples to quantify functional activities, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.


Multiple factors in addition to over consumption lead to obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States and worldwide. CYP2B6 is the only human detoxification CYP whose loss is associated with obesity, and Cyp2b-null mice show greater diet-induced obesity with increased steatosis than wildtype mice. However, a putative mechanism has not been determined. LC-MS/MS revealed that CYP2B6 metabolizes PUFAs, with a preference for metabolism of ALA to 9-HOTrE and to a lesser extent 13-HOTrE with a preference for metabolism of PUFAs at the 9- and 13-positions. To further study the role of CYP2B6 in vivo, humanized-CYP2B6-transgenic (hCYP2B6-Tg) and Cyp2b-null mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Compared to Cyp2b-null mice, hCYP2B6-Tg mice showed reduced weight gain and metabolic disease as measured by glucose tolerance tests, however hCYP2B6-Tg male mice showed increased liver triglycerides. Serum and liver oxylipin metabolite concentrations increased in male hCYP2B6-Tg mice, while only serum oxylipins increased in female hCYP2B6-Tg mice with the greatest increases in LA oxylipins metabolized at the 9 and 13-positions. Several of these oxylipins, specifically 9-HODE, 9-HOTrE, and 13-oxoODE, are PPAR agonists. RNA-seq data also demonstrated sexually dimorphic changes in gene expression related to nuclear receptor signaling, especially CAR > PPAR with qPCR suggesting PPARγ signaling is more likely than PPARα signaling in male mice. Overall, our data indicates that CYP2B6 is an anti-obesity enzyme, but probably to a lesser extent than murine Cyp2b’s. Therefore, the inhibition of CYP2B6 by xenobiotics or dietary fats can exacerbate obesity and metabolic disease potentially through disrupted PUFA metabolism and the production of key lipid metabolites.
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant. The primary TDCPP metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), is detectable in the urine of over 90 % of Americans. Epidemiological studies show sex-specific associations between urinary BDCPP levels and metabolic syndrome, which is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. We used a mouse model to determine whether TDCPP exposure disrupts glucose homeostasis. Six-week old male and female C57BL/6J mice were given ad libitum access to diets containing vehicle (0.1 % DMSO) and TDCPP resulting in the following treatment groups: 0 mg/kg/day, 0.02 mg/kg/day, 1 mg/kg/day, or 100 mg/kg/day. After being on the experimental diet for five weeks without interruption, body composition was analyzed, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were quantified. TDCPP at 100 mg/kg/day caused male sex-specific adiposity, fasting hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. TDCPP-induced modulation of nuclear receptor activation was investigated using an in vitro screen to identify potential mechanisms of metabolic disruption. TDCPP activated farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), and inhibited the androgen receptor (AR). PXR target genes, but not FXR target genes, were upregulated in livers from mice exposed to 100 mg TDCPP/kg/day. Interestingly, PXR target genes were differentially expressed in livers from both males and females. It remains to be determined whether TDCPP-induced metabolic disruption occurs via modulation of nuclear receptor activity. Taken together, these studies build upon the association of TDCPP exposure and metabolic syndrome in humans by identifying sex-specific effects of TDCPP on glucose homeostasis in mice.

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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARg, NR1C3)

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