View the slide viewer

Have questions about this assay kit?

Human PPARa Reporter Assay Kit

1 x-96 well format assays
3 x-32 assays in-96 well format
1 x-384 well format assays
1 x-96 well format assays
3 x-32 assays in-96 well format
1 x-384 well format assays

Product Description and Product Data

This is an all-inclusive cell-based luciferase reporter assay kit targeting the Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha. INDIGO’s Human PPAR alpha reporter assay utilizes proprietary mammalian cells that have been engineered to provide constitutive expression of the Human PPAR alpha. In addition to PPAR alpha Reporter Cells, this kit provides two optimized media for use during cell culture and in diluting the user’s test samples, a reference agonist, Luciferase Detection Reagent, and a cell culture-ready assay plate. The principal application of this assay is in the screening of test samples to quantify any functional activity, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against human PPAR alpha. This kit provides researchers with clear, reproducible results, exceptional cell viability post-thaw, and consistent results lot to lot. Kits must be stored at -80C. Do not store in liquid nitrogen. Note: reporter cells cannot be refrozen or maintained in extended culture.


  • Ready to Use Upon Receipt

  • Includes All Needed Components
  • Contains Transfected Reporter Cells
  • Eliminates Cell Licensing Fees
  • Clear, Reproducible Results
  • Consistent Results Lot to Lot

Product Specifications

Target TypeNuclear Hormone Receptor
Receptor FormHybrid
Assay ModeAgonist, Antagonist
Kit Components
  • PPARa Reporter Cells
  • Cell Recovery Medium (CRM)
  • Compound Screening Medium (CSM)
  • GW7647, (ref. agonist; in DMSO)
  • Detection Substrate
  • Detection Buffer
  • White, sterile, cell-culture ready assay plate
Shelf Life6 months
Orthologs AvailableYes
Shipping RequirementsDry Ice
Storage temperature-80C


Agonist dose-response analyses of Human PPARα. Dose-response analyses of human PPARα were performed according to the protocol provided in this Technical Manual. Reporter Cells were treated with the reference agonists GW7647 (provided), GW590735 and CP 775,146 (Tocris). Average Relative Light Units (RLU) and their respective values of Standard Deviation (SD) and Coefficient of Variation (CV) were calculated for each treatment concentration (n =4). Z’ was calculated as per Zhang, et al. (1999). Agonist treatment concentrations were Log10 transformed and respective RLU values were normalized as Fold-Activation (i.e., S/B). Data were plotted via non-linear regression and EC50 determined using GraphPad Prism software. High Z' for the reference agonist GW7647 confirms the robust performance of this human PPARα Assay.

Target Background

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha), also known as NR1C1, is a nuclear receptor protein encoded by the PPARA gene. PPAR ligands, whose names derived from their effect on inducing an increase in the size and number of peroxisomes, include hypolipidemic drugs, herbicides, leukotriene antagonists, and plasticizers. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles found in plants and animals that contain enzymes for respiration and for cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The action of peroxisome proliferators is thought to be mediated via specific receptors, called PPARs, which belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs affect the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and in immune and inflammation responses. Three closely related subtypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) have been identified. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for PPARα gene, although the full-length nature of only two has been determined.

INDIGO’s PPAR alpha Reporter Assay Systems utilize proprietary mammalian cells engineered to express human PPARA, commonly referred to as PPAR alpha.

The principle application of this assay product is in the screening of test samples to quantify functional activities, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.


In the current study, two series of novel thiazolidin-4-one benzenesulfonamide arylidene hybrids 9a-l and 10a-f were designed, synthesized and tested in vitro for their PPARɣ agonistic activity. The phenethyl thiazolidin-4-one sulphonamide 9l showed the highest PPARɣ activation % by 41.7%. Whereas, the 3-methoxy- and 4-methyl-4-benzyloxy thiazolidin-4-one sulphonamides 9i, and 9k revealed moderate PPARɣ activation % of 31.7, and 32.8%, respectively, in addition, the 3-methoxy-3-benzyloxy thiazolidin-4-one sulphonamide 10d showed PPARɣ activation % of 33.7% compared to pioglitazone. Compounds 9b, 9i, 9k, 9l, and 10d revealed higher selectivity to PPARɣ over the PPARδ, and PPARα isoforms. An immunohistochemical study was performed in HepG-2 cells to confirm the PPARɣ protein expression for the most active compounds. Compounds 9i, 9k, and 10d showed higher PPARɣ expression than that of pioglitazone. Pharmacological studies were also performed to determine the anti-diabetic activity in rats at a dose of 36 mg/kg, and it was revealed that compounds 9i and 10d improved insulin secretion as well as anti-diabetic effects. The 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxy thiazolidin-4-one sulphonamide 9i showed a better anti-diabetic activity than pioglitazone. Moreover, it showed a rise in blood insulin by 4-folds and C-peptide levels by 48.8%, as well as improved insulin sensitivity. Moreover, compound 9i improved diabetic complications as evidenced by decreasing liver serum enzymes, restoration of total protein and kidney functions. Besides, it combated oxidative stress status and exerted anti-hyperlipidemic effect. Compound 9i showed a superior activity by normalizing some parameters and amelioration of pancreatic, hepatic, and renal histopathological alterations caused by STZ-induction of diabetes. Molecular docking studies, molecular dynamic simulations, and protein ligand interaction analysis were also performed for the newly synthesized compounds to investigate their predicted binding pattern and energies in PPARɣ binding site.
Bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract produce amino acid bile acid amidates that can affect host-mediated metabolic processes1-6; however, the bacterial gene(s) responsible for their production remain unknown. Herein, we report that bile salt hydrolase (BSH) possesses dual functions in bile acid metabolism. Specifically, we identified a previously unknown role for BSH as an amine N-acyltransferase that conjugates amines to bile acids, thus forming bacterial bile acid amidates (BBAAs). To characterize this amine N-acyltransferase BSH activity, we used pharmacological inhibition of BSH, heterologous expression of bsh and mutants in Escherichia coli and bsh knockout and complementation in Bacteroides fragilis to demonstrate that BSH generates BBAAs. We further show in a human infant cohort that BBAA production is positively correlated with the colonization of bsh-expressing bacteria. Lastly, we report that in cell culture models, BBAAs activate host ligand-activated transcription factors including the pregnane X receptor and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. These findings enhance our understanding of how gut bacteria, through the promiscuous actions of BSH, have a significant role in regulating the bile acid metabolic network.

Also available as a service

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARa, NR1C1)

Have questions about this assay kit?