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Human RARγ Reporter Assay Kit

1 x-96 well format assays
3 x-32 assays in-96 well format
1 x-384 well format assays
1 x-96 well format assays
3 x-32 assays in-96 well format
1 x-384 well format assays

Product Description and Product Data

This is an all-inclusive cell-based luciferase reporter assay kit targeting the Human Retinoic Acid Receptor Gamma (RARg). INDIGO’s RAR Gamma reporter assay utilizes proprietary mammalian cells that have been engineered to provide constitutive expression of the RAR Gamma. In addition to RAR Gamma Reporter Cells, this kit provides two optimized media for use during cell culture and in diluting the user’s test samples, a reference agonist, Luciferase Detection Reagent, and a cell culture-ready assay plate. The principal application of this assay is in the screening of test samples to quantify any functional activity, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against human RAR Gamma. This kit provides researchers with clear, reproducible results, exceptional cell viability post-thaw, and consistent results lot to lot. Kits must be stored at -80C. Do not store in liquid nitrogen. Note: reporter cells cannot be refrozen or maintained in extended culture.


  • Ready to Use Upon Receipt

  • Includes All Needed Components
  • Contains Transfected Reporter Cells
  • Eliminates Cell Licensing Fees
  • Clear, Reproducible Results
  • Consistent Results Lot to Lot

Product Specifications

Target TypeNuclear Hormone Receptor
Receptor FormHybrid
Assay ModeAgonist, Antagonist
Kit Components
  • RARg Reporter Cells
  • Cell Recovery Medium (CRM)
  • Compound Screening Medium (CSM)
  • All trans Retinoic Acid, (ref. agonist; in DMSO)
  • Detection Substrate
  • Detection Buffer
  • White, sterile, cell-culture ready assay plate
Shelf Life6 months
Orthologs AvailableNo
Shipping RequirementsDry Ice
Storage temperature-80C


Agonist dose-response of the RARγ Assay. Validation of the RARγ Assay was performed using manual dispensing and following the protocol described in this Technical Manual, using the reference agonists all-trans-Retinoic Acid (provided), Adapalene, BMS 961, and CD1530 (all from Tocris). In addition, to assess the level of background signal contributed by non-specific factor(s) that may cause activation of the luciferase reporter gene, “mock” reporter cells were specially prepared to contain only the luciferase reporter vector (mock reporter cells are not provided with assay kits). RARγ Reporter Cells and Mock reporter cells were identically treated with trans-retinoic acid. Luminescence was quantified using a GloMax-Multi+ plate-reading luminometer (Promega Corp.). Average relative light units (RLU) and respective standard deviation (SD) and Signal-to-Background (S/B) values were determined for each treatment concentration (n ≥ 6). Z’ values were calculated as described by Zhang, et al. (1999). Non-linear regression analyses were performed and EC50 values determined using GraphPad Prism software. Results: Mock reporter cells treated with trans-retinoic acid demonstrate no significant background luminescence (≤ 0.05% that of the reporter cells at ECMax). Thus, luminescence results strictly through ligand-activation of the human RARγ expressed in these reporter cells. These data confirm the robust performance of this RARγ assay and demonstrate its suitability for use in HTS applications.
Validation of RARγ Assay antagonist dose-responses. RARγ antagonist assays were performed using MM11253, CD2665, BMS453 and ER50891 (all from Tocris). Assay setup and quantification of RARγ activity were performed following the protocol described in this Technical Manual. Final assay concentrations of the respective antagonists ranged between 10 µM and 10 pM, and included a 'no antagonist' control (n ≥ 6 per treatment; highest [DMSO] ≤ 0.1% f.c.). Each treatment also contained 3.8 nM (~ EC80) of trans-Retinoic Acid. Assay plates were incubated for ~24 hrs, then processed to quantify RARγ activity for each treatment condition.

Target Background

Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NRB1 class, which function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). There are three distinct RAR subtypes; RARalpha, RARbeta and RARgamma. RARalpha is present in most tissue types, whereas RARbeta and RARgamma expression is more selective. RXR-RAR heterodimers act as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators by binding to the specific retinoic acid response element (RARE) found in the promoter regions of target genes. In the absence of an RAR agonist, RXR-RAR recruits co-repressor proteins such as NCoR and associated factors such as histone deacetylase to maintain a condensed chromatin structure. RAR agonist binding stimulates co-repressor release and co-activator complexes, such as histone acetyltransferase, are recruited to activate transcription. RARs transduce retinoid signals in vivo, which mediates proper embryogenesis, differentiation and growth arrest. Specifically, RXRalpha-RARgamma heterodimers are necessary for growth arrest and viseral and primitive endodermal differentiation, whereas RXRalpha-RARalpha is required for cAMP-dependent parietal endodermal differentiation. In vitro it has been difficult to elucidate the roles of individual subtypes as functional RAR knockouts generate artificial redundancies that are thought not to exist under normal conditions.

The Human RARγ Reporter Assay Systems utilize proprietary mammalian cells engineered to provide constitutive, high-level expression of Human Retinoic Acid Receptor Gamma (NR1B3), a ligand-dependent transcription factor commonly referred to as RARγ. Additionally, these cells contain a RARγ-responsive luciferase reporter gene. Thus, quantifying luciferase activity provides a surrogate measure of RARg activity in the treated reporter cells.


Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant. The primary TDCPP metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), is detectable in the urine of over 90 % of Americans. Epidemiological studies show sex-specific associations between urinary BDCPP levels and metabolic syndrome, which is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. We used a mouse model to determine whether TDCPP exposure disrupts glucose homeostasis. Six-week old male and female C57BL/6J mice were given ad libitum access to diets containing vehicle (0.1 % DMSO) and TDCPP resulting in the following treatment groups: 0 mg/kg/day, 0.02 mg/kg/day, 1 mg/kg/day, or 100 mg/kg/day. After being on the experimental diet for five weeks without interruption, body composition was analyzed, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were quantified. TDCPP at 100 mg/kg/day caused male sex-specific adiposity, fasting hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. TDCPP-induced modulation of nuclear receptor activation was investigated using an in vitro screen to identify potential mechanisms of metabolic disruption. TDCPP activated farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), and inhibited the androgen receptor (AR). PXR target genes, but not FXR target genes, were upregulated in livers from mice exposed to 100 mg TDCPP/kg/day. Interestingly, PXR target genes were differentially expressed in livers from both males and females. It remains to be determined whether TDCPP-induced metabolic disruption occurs via modulation of nuclear receptor activity. Taken together, these studies build upon the association of TDCPP exposure and metabolic syndrome in humans by identifying sex-specific effects of TDCPP on glucose homeostasis in mice.
Regeneration of myelin is mediated by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), an abundant stem cell population in the CNS and the principal source of new myelinating oligodendrocytes. Loss of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) underlies a number of neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and diverse genetic diseases1–3. Using high throughput chemical screening approaches, we and others have identified small molecules that stimulate oligodendrocyte formation from OPCs and functionally enhance remyelination in vivo4–10. Here we show a broad range of these pro-myelinating small molecules function not through their canonical targets but by directly inhibiting CYP51 (cytochrome P450, family 51), TM7SF2, or EBP (emopamil binding protein), a narrow range of enzymes within the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Subsequent accumulation of the 8,9-unsaturated sterol substrates of these enzymes is a key mechanistic node that promotes oligodendrocyte formation, as 8,9-unsaturated sterols are effective when supplied to OPCs in purified form while analogous sterols lacking this structural feature have no effect. Collectively, our results define a unifying sterol-based mechanism-of-action for most known small-molecule enhancers of oligodendrocyte formation and highlight specific targets to propel the development of optimal remyelinating therapeutics.

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Retinoic Acid Receptor Gamma (RARg, NR1B3)

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