Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta/Delta (PPARδ/PPARβ; NR1C2)
These PPARδ Reporter Assay Systems utilize non-human mammalian cells engineered to express human PPARδ.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ or PPARβ), also known as NR1C2 is a nuclear receptor encoded by the PPARδ gene. This protein is a potential inhibitor of ligand-induced transcription activity of PPARα and PPARγ. It may function as an integrator of transcription repression and nuclear receptor signaling. The expression of PPARδ gene is found to be elevated in colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), a tumor suppressor protein involved in the APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of PPARδ in myelination of the corpus callosum, epidermal cell proliferation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARδ has been shown to be involved in differentiation, lipid accumulation, directional sensing, polarization, and migration in keratinocytes.
For more information on PPARδ, visit the Nuclear Receptor Resource.
Kits are offered in different assay formats to accommodate researchers’ needs: 3x 32, 1x 96, and 1x 384 assay formats for screening small numbers of test compounds, as well as custom bulk reagents for HTS applications. Assay systems are all inclusive, providing reporter cells, optimized growth media, media for diluting test compounds, a positive-control agonist, luciferase detection reagent, a white assay plate, a detailed protocol, and a protocol quick guide. All kits are shipped on dry ice.
PPAR Reporter Cells are prepared using INDIGO’s proprietary CryoMite™ process. This cryo-preservation method yields high cell viability post-thaw, and provides the convenience of immediately dispensing healthy, division-competent reporter cells into assay plates. There is no need for intermediate spin-and-wash steps, viability determinations, or cell titer adjustments.
The principle application of this assay product is in the screening of test samples to quantify functional activities, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. This kit product is an all-inclusive assay system that includes, in addition to PPAR Reporter Cells, two optimized media for use during cell culture and (optionally) in diluting the test samples, a reference agonist, Luciferase Detection Reagent, a cell culture-ready assay plate, and a detailed protocol.
|Product Family||Product Number||Product Description|
|IB0012 PPARδ (NR1C2)||IB00121-32||Human PPARδ Reporter Assay System, 3 x 32 assays in 96-well format|
|IB00121||Human PPARδ Reporter Assay System, 1 x 96-well format assays|
|IB00122||Human PPARδ Reporter Assay System, 1 x 384-well format assays|
Service Assays: Human, Mouse, Rat, Cyn Monkey, Dog
The primary application of INDIGO’s cell-based nuclear receptor assays are to quantitatively assess the bioactivity of a test compound as an agonist (activator) or antagonist (inhibition of an agonist response) of a given receptor. Service assays include a positive control reference compound and ‘vehicle’ control for every experiment. A formal study report and all data files are provided to the client upon completion of the study. To receive a quote for your proposed study, complete & submit the online “Request a Quote” form or contact an INDIGO Customer Service Representative to discuss your desired study parameters. To initiate a Service Study, download and complete all fields of the Excel worksheet “Service Work Order" then submit the electronic file to INDIGO Customer Service.
GPR40 partial agonist MK-2305 lower fasting glucose in the Goto Kakizaki rat via suppression of endogenous glucose production
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel thiazolidinediones as PPARγ/FFAR1 dual agonists
ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that affects more than 180 million people worldwide. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptors that have been targeted by the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of compounds for the management of type II diabetes. PPARγ is known to regulate adipogenesis and glucose metabolism. Another
Systems toxicology identifies mechanistic impacts of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) exposure in Northern Bobwhite
ABSTRACT Background: A systems toxicology investigation comparing and integrating transcriptomic and proteomic results was conducted to develop holistic effects characterizations for the wildlife bird model, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) dosed with the explosives degradation product 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT). A subchronic 60d toxicology bioassay was leveraged where both sexes were dosed via daily gavage with 0, 3, 14, or 30 mg/kg-d
Keratinocyte differentiation and upregulation of ceramide synthesis induced by an oat lipid extract via the activation of PPAR pathways
ABSTRACT Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has been shown to have an important role in skin barrier function by regulating differentiation and lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. Oat (Avena sativa) has long been used as a soothing agent to relieve skin irritations, and the clinical benefits of topical oat formulations have been proven; however, the
ABSTRACT The RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) is a nuclear receptor required for generating IL-17–producing CD4+ Th17 T cells, which are essential in host defense and may play key pathogenic roles in autoimmune diseases. Oxysterols elicit profound effects on immune and inflammatory responses as well as on cholesterol and lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the identification of several naturally occurring
ABSTRACT Omega-3-PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with prevention of various aspects of metabolic syndrome. In the present studies, the effects of oil rich in EPA on gene expression and activation of nuclear receptors was examined and compared with other 3-PUFAs. The EPA-rich oil (EO) altered the expression of FA metabolism genes in THP-1 cells, including stearoyl
ABSTRACT PPARa L162A, PPARg 12A, PPARβ/d rs226766 , and PGC-1a G482S genotype distributions were compared with TFEQ-R18 and ecSI scores; responses were gender-specific and paralleled published values. Results confirmed less emotional eating (EE) (P<.001), cognitive restraint (CR) (P<.001) and uncontrolled eating (UE) (P=.1) with EC (ecSI score >= 32). Subjects in the lowest ecSI tertile
Differential Activation of Nuclear Receptors by Perflunoriated Fatty Acid Analogs and Natural Fatty Acids: A Comparison of Human, Mouse, and Rat Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Receptor-a, -b, and -c, Liver X Receptor-b, and Retinoid X Receptor-a
ABSTRACT Administration of ammonium salts of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to rats results in peroxisome proliferation and benign liver tumors, events associated with activation of the nuclear receptor (NR) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a (PPARa). Due to its fatty acid structure, PFOA may activate other NRs, such as PPARb, PPARg, liver X receptor (LXR), or retinoid X receptor (RXR). In this study, the